Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Tuesday's Tips: ‘Nomina defunctorum’: Irish Catholic records of the dead

After having had full access to Catholic parish registers on the National Library of Ireland site for over four months now, one element which may have sprung very quickly to the researcher's eye is the lack of records of death. Catholic burial registers are like hens' teeth, blue moons and pigs in flight, a rare sight indeed. 

For those searching for death records on the NLI Parish Register site, you will find burial registers for very few of the parishes included in the collection. For example, if you are searching in the parishes of County Clare you will find only one register, that of the parish of Kilmurry McMahon, which notes burials. For County Longford you will find burial registers for 20 parishes, as well as one for a parish which crosses into Westmeath (see my listing below in endnotes for parishes with burial registers).1

The burial registers that do appear on the NLI site date from as early as 1782 (Granard parish, County Longford), but most start in the early to mid 1800s. Burial entries are typically limited in scope, usually with only the name and date of death included, along with his/her last place of residence. In the most complete death records for women you will find maiden names, appearing as ‘alias surname', included in the list of ‘Nomina defunctorum’ — The Names of the Dead — but sometimes only a woman's married name is recorded.

A grandaunt of mine used to jokingly say 'we Catholics' didn't keep burial records because we believe we will live forever, and burial records are an uncomfortable reminder of the inevitable. However, the truth is somewhat more skewed than my grandaunt might admit.

First, while baptism and marriage, along with the anointing of the sick, are sacraments in the Catholic church, interment is not, so there would have been no imperative for keeping burial registers. This might lead you to wonder why some churches kept registers while others did not. Second, and more significantly, the absence of Catholic interment records may be accounted for because of the restrictions placed on Catholic practices from the mid-sixteenth century. Third, as I have mentioned in previous posts, Oliver Cromwell had an appetite for blowing up Catholic churches during the period of his invasion of Ireland (1649-53), and burial registers may have been destroyed along with all else in those churches.

From the time of the Reformation in Ireland (c.1541) until full Catholic Emancipation in 1829, Catholic cemeteries were given over into Protestant control. As William Fitzpatrick writes,

"From the Reformation, Roman Catholics [legally] possessed no cemeteries for their dead, and burials could alone take place in Protestant churchyards." 2

To Fitzpatrick's words I have added the term 'legally', because some Catholics managed to inter their dead in consecrated ground despite legal impediments. For example in Dublin, Catholic deceased were surreptitiously conveyed to, and quickly interred in, the cemeteries of St. James and St. Kevin, with the prayers for the dead having already been said in the house of mourning before removal. Also, recent scholarship by Clodagh Tait makes note of the fact of "continued Catholic burial in sacred space that was technically Protestant" during the period of Catholic suppression. 3

The movement for religious freedom for Catholics, which began in earnest in the late 18th century, meant an easing of restrictions; however, it was not until the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829, championed by Daniel O'Connell, that the door was opened to the legal re-establishment of old Catholic burial grounds and the foundation of new ones.

With the suppression of Catholicism it is no wonder burial registers kept by Catholic parishes are rare. Keeping parish registers of any kind during this period was an act of defiance.

So, what are we to do if our Catholic ancestors are among those whose interments have no record? Other than capitulating, and having a family tree chock-a-block with seemingly immortal ancestors, we have to be more creative in our search for dates of death. Here are seven suggestions for narrowing down a date of death and for finding Irish Catholic records of death.

1. Church of Ireland Parish Registers:

The upside of burial grounds being overseen by the Established Church, i.e. the Church of Ireland, is there are some extant COI parish registers in which the burials of Roman Catholics are entered. If you are in search of a burial record for a Catholic ancestor, be sure to visit the Representative Church Body of Ireland website. Members of the church are currently engaged in The Anglican Record Project, an ongoing programme to transcribe and digitise extant parish registers. A number of transcriptions of registers are already available online, not only for viewing but for downloading too.

For example, in the registers for the Cloghran Parish, Diocese of Dublin, County Dublin, there are some Roman Catholic burials recorded — denoted by the 'RC' in the entry. The transcription of the Cloghran parish registers has burial records dating from 1732 to 1864.

2. Cemetery records:

Rev. James Fay,
Founder & Guardian of the Orphanage of
St. Catherine's Parish, Dublin
Died 30 January 1861, aged 41 years.
Glasnevin Cemetery.
This may seem like an obvious source since ancestors ideally end up interred; however, occasionally what is self-evident is overlooked. There are a number of options in this category for ancestors buried in Ireland. Be aware the date of burial and the date of death are rarely the same, usually differing by one to three days.

Cemeteries such as The Prospect Cemetery at Glasnevin have their online database available. Conducting a search is free of charge; however, accessing the record is pay-per-view. There are a three options here. For €3 you can get the grave number of the deceased; for €8 you get the grave number and details of the interred for whom you have searched, as well as details for all others buried in same grave. For an additional €2 you can view the original entry in the cemetery register. 

The Irish Genealogy Projects Archives Headstone pages are excellent, and boast a collection now standing at over 82,000 headstones. There are transcriptions of the stones available, and the search function works beautifully. All material is free to access, although donations to maintain the site are graciously accepted.

IrishGraveyards.ie has a significant number of graveyard images and transcriptions, currently with a focus on cemeteries in the west and north counties of Ireland, but with plans for many more to be added from around the island of Ireland. Access is currently free.

Find a Grave and Interment.net each have a number of gravestones from Ireland. 

The Ulster Historical Foundation at http://www.ancestryireland.com has over 173,000 records of death for Counties Antrim and Down. Access is either by Guild membership or 'pay-as-you-go'.

Grave of Mary Browne, died 15 July 1881,
Murrisk Abbey, Murrisk, County Mayo.
Over thy dead body: A Cemetery Blog is my cemetery blog and has gravestones principally from cemeteries in Ireland. It is fully searchable by surname. Where possible I have included details of those interred within the graves which appear in my photographs.

My sincere thanks to John Tierney (see comments below) for sending along the link to his site historicgraves.com. As John describes it, this site features more than 700 Irish graveyards, with approximately 400 complete surveys, geolocated headstone photos with inscriptions and person database, and about two graveyards added each week.

If your ancestor died in Dublin you can find a directory for all Dublin cemeteries on the Dublin Heritage website. This listing includes all cemeteries in Dublin City, as well as those in Fingal (North County Dublin), South County Dublin, and Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown. It features location and contact details and offers the titles of published gravestone transcripts. Some entries include links to online transcriptions and the location of surviving burial records.

If you have ancestors who lived outside of Dublin during the period of An Gorta Mór, The Great Famine of 1845-52, and you are unable to find a burial record or site for them, you may want to check the records of Dublin cemeteries since a significant number of persons migrated to the capital in search of relief, only to die there.

The Long Walk, Mount Jerome Cemetery, Dublin.
Originally a Protestant cemetery, Catholics were allowed interments
beginning in 1920.
3. Obituaries and Newspaper reports:

Although newspaper obituaries are most often limited to those who could afford them, you may be able to uncover the death of an ancestor by searching for stories of murder and mayhem, accidents and illness. Newspaper stories about an event such as An Gorta Mór, The Great Famine of 1845-52, may aid you in narrowing down the date of death of an ancestor. In April of 1848 the Freeman's Journal newspaper published a listing of some 3000 persons who had been evicted from lands in and around Strokestown, County Roscommon.

Given that eviction made persons even more vulnerable, it is not unreasonable to imagine an ancestor whose name appears on that list may have died shortly thereafter, giving you at the very least at starting point in your search for date of death. Also, some 1491 evicted from Strokestown immigrated to Canada, and the Library & Archives Canada site has information about them, including some who died. (See '...really and truly suffering...': The National Famine Museum Strokestown)

4. Civil registration records:

If your ancestor died after 1864, then chances are there may exist a civil registration record of death.4 However, if such a record is not extant, you may still be able to narrow down the date by comparing the civil registration records of birth and/or marriage for his children. It is not unknown for a pregnant woman to have been widowed, so while her husband's name appears on the birth registration of his first child, he may have died before the second was born. Also, a father who was alive for the wedding of one child may have died before the wedding of another, and may be recorded as deceased on the second child's marriage record. Obviously, a comparison is not a record, but at least by comparing the two you may be able to narrow down the date of death for the parent in question.

5. Parish register entries of marriage:

Some parish register entries for marriages sometimes indicate whether or not one or both of the parents of the bride and the groom were deceased at the time of the marriage between their children. As is the case with civil registration records of marriage, if you look at the parish records of marriage for all of the children in a family, you may discover a parent was alive to witness the marriage of one child and then deceased at the time of the marriage of another. Again, not a record, but comparing the two may help you to narrow down the date of death for the parent in question.

6. Irish County Library & Archive Websites:

Online you may find death, burial and transcription records on some county websites. One site which is invaluable for researchers with ancestors in County Clare is the website of the Clare County Library. Although no match for the Clare library, you can connect to sources for death records and gravestone transcriptions via the Mayo County Library. Also, be sure to consult the Irish Archives Resource website, a portal which will link you to archival collections throughout the island of Ireland.

7. Contact the parish or cemetery directly:

In the post entitled 'A secret stash of Irish Roman Catholic parish registers?', I outline the fact that not all Catholic parish registers are online. This holds true for Irish parish registers of death as well, so you may want to contact a parish directly in order to obtain a transcription of a record of death — if one is extant — for your ancestor or relative. Contacting a parish is no guarantee you will be able to retrieve such a record, but it is certainly worth the effort.

For cemeteries that do not have an online presence it may be possible to gain access to information about your ancestor's burial by contacting the cemetery office by phone, or by making a written request to the sexton or caretaker at the cemetery office.

What tips do you have for finding Irish Catholic Records of death, 
or for narrowing down dates of death?



1. The following burial registers available on the NLI site: Be aware of variations — which are not included here — in the naming of parishes.

A. County Longford, Diocese of Armagh:

Parish of Templemichael: Deaths: 30 January 1802 to 19 February 1829 and 1 March 1829 to 30 October 1865.
Parish of Ardagh and Moydow: Deaths: 16 Nov. 1822 to 24 Oct. 1842 and 1 Nov 1842 to 13 Mar. 1876.
Parish of Abbeylara: Deaths: 9 August 1854 to 1 July 1882.
Parish of Clonbroney: Deaths: 8 Jan 1854 to 27 Feb 1862 and 5 March 1862 to 10 January 1878.
Parish of Carrickedmond: Deaths: 28 Jan. 1835 to 17 Nov. 1842 and 26 May 1848 to 2 Jan 1869.
Parish of Colmcille: Deaths: 22 July 1845 to 21 Dec. 1858.
Parish of Cashel: Deaths: 11 Feb. 1839 to 19 Mar. 1868.
Parish of Drumlish: Deaths: 2 Jan 1834 to 13 Mar 1868, 16 Feb 1870 to 10 July 1872, and 13 Aug 1876 to 27 Aug 1881.
Parish of Clongish: Deaths: 22 Aug 1829 to 6 Oct 1881.
Parish of Granard: Deaths: 18 Dec 1782 to 8 Aug 1816, 29 April 1818 to 18 April 1820, 16 Sep 1816 to 27 Dec 1847, 3 Jan 1848 to 24 May 1865.
Parish of Dromard: Deaths: 11 Dec 1853 to 15 Oct 1868, 26 July 1874 to 20 May 1881.
Parish of Killashee: Deaths: 15 Nov 1826 to 3 Aug 1843, 20 Nov 1858 to 11 May 1868.
Parish of Kilcomoge: Deaths: 13 Nov 1859 to 18 Nov 1880.
Parish of Legan: Deaths: 20 Jan 1855 to 15 Mar 1881.
Parish of Killoe: Deaths: 14 Feb 1827 to 10 June 1853, 23 Aug 1853 to 29 Dec 1868, 20 Jan 1869 to 25 June 1881.
Parish of Rathcline: Deaths: 10 Dec 1839 to 17 March 1899.
Parish of Mostrim: Deaths: 23 May 1838 to 15 May 1882.
Parish of Shrule: Deaths: 4 Aug 1829 to 30 Apr 1830.
Parish of Mohill: Deaths: 3 July 1836 to 9 May 1854, 2 Oct 1850 to March 1882.
Parish of Scrabby: Deaths: 9 Sep 1835 to March 1854, 7 Apr 1856 to 20 Aug 1860.

B. Counties of Westmeath and Longford, Diocese of Armagh: 

Parish of Streete: Deaths: 27 Sept 1823 to 13 Aug 1829, and 19 July 1842 to 19 Oct 1882.

C. County Clare, Diocese of Killable:

Parish of Kilmurry McMahon: Deaths: 5 Nov 1844 to April 1848

2. Fitzpatrick, William J., L.L.D.. History of the Dublin Catholic Cemeteries, Catholic Cemeteries Committee Board, Dublin, 1900.

3. Tait, Clodagh. Death, Burial and Commemoration in Ireland, 1550–1650, Palgrave MacMillan, London, 2003.

4. Copies of civil registration records can be purchased online; however, currently the available dates for deaths include only those deaths registered in the Republic of Ireland from 1921 to the present day. See http://www.hse.ie/eng/services/list/1/bdm/Certificates/faq/#question1


Thursday, November 5, 2015

Those Places Thursday: The Forty Foot Bathing Place

Did your ancestors or family members have a local swimming hole, a spot to frolic on a warm summer's day? Well, in Ireland, a few kilometres outside of Dublin City, there is a natural swimming 'pool' of sorts in the Irish sea, a bathing place which locals and visitors alike have used all year round for over 250 years. It is called the 'Forty Foot Bathing Place'.

Located only steps away from Sandycove beach in Dún Laoghaire (anglicised: Dunleary), the promontory is thought to have been named for the Forty-Foot Regiment once stationed nearby to protect the area from invasion during the Napoleonic era. Local folk lore offers other reasons for its name, including one which says forty feet is the distance from the top of the highest stone to the sea floor beneath, while another sees the name as a salute to the nearby Martello Tower which stands forty feet in height.

Huge granite stones form the walls of the 'bathing pavilion' where swimmers leave their belongings before they walk down nature's 'stairs', supported by rusting iron rails, to venture into the bracing waters of the Irish sea. Although the water may look calm, the changing tides of Dublin Bay, along with the wake created by passing ferries, can whip up the tranquil waters quick as you like, so weak swimmers are ill-advised to take the plunge.

My dad and his pals liked to enjoy a swim in the chilly waters at the Forty Foot, especially to cool off along the way if they were on a cycling trip to the southern counties. Occasionally family members would take the train from Dublin to Dún Laoghaire, and while the women enjoyed a swim at Sandycove beach, the men would venture 'round the corner' to the waters of the Forty Foot.

A couple of hardy souls enjoying a late afternoon swim.
The craggy rocks above the sea surface serve as a reminder of what lies beneath.
'No diving' is the order of the day here.
In James Joyce's 'Ulysses', the character Buck Mulligan refers to
the 'snot green sea' at the Forty Foot where he swims each morning.
My preference is to describe the waters as a mix of blues & emerald green.
The Forty Foot is near the Martello Tower (now the Joyce Museum)
in which Joyce briefly lived with his friend Oliver St. John Gogarty.

On 23 March 1888, one Alfred Carson wrote a letter to the editor of The Freeman's Journal in which he expressed his concern over the possibility that sewage might be released near the Forty Foot Bathing Place. Carson wrote,

Sir — My attention having been drawn to a new sewerage scheme, having for object the carrying of all Blackrock, Monkstown, and Kingstown sewage through Sandycove, and to be discharged in close proximity to the now celebrated forty foot bathing place, allow me, as one who for years has always taken the deepest interest in the welfare of the above, to most strongly protest against any such scheme being carried out...

Thankfully the scheme was diverted and the 'celebrated forty foot bathing place' was saved.

The sign serves as a reminder the Forty Foot was once strictly the purview of a gentlemen's bathing club. The organisation was founded in 1880, and some of those gents were known for taking to the surf in the nude, thus the single sex restriction. As one local put it, all the better to avoid 'shocking the ladies'. In the 1970s women dared break the rules and climbed down the craggy rocks to enjoy a brisk dip in the sea at the Forty Foot, forever ending male domination of the swimming place.

The bathing club still exists, but now membership is open to all. Swimming at the Forty Foot is also open to everyone, and is enjoyed the whole year long. These days swim togs are requisite, although you may see a few bare bottoms if you venture to this spot, as hundreds do, for the annual holiday plunge on Christmas Day.

On the late September day on which I shot these photographs, I visited the Forty Foot at the tail end of the afternoon, around 5 pm. Although it was lightly raining, and the air temperature was around 15°C (about 59°F), there were a few hardy souls enjoying an exhilarating swim in the Irish sea. The water looked very inviting, but with cameras in hand the best I could manage was to roll up my trousers, doff my shoes and venture down the concrete steps into the sea up to my ankles. It was indeed enlivening!

A natural wading pool on the left hand side of the Forty Foot.

The more cautious may enter the sea here via concrete steps.

The Sandycove Bathers Association maintains the area, and
offers the gentle reminder that togs, i.e. 'a swimming costume', must be worn.
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